al biruni was a traveller from which country
Calculated by Al-Ghadanfa, Astrodatabank) – 1048 or 1052) was a Persian scholar and polymath. He was fond of travelling and wanted to increase his knowledge by establishing his contact with the people of different countries. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative Religion", "Father of modern geodesy", and the first anthropologist. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena. Biruni also employed astronomy in the determination of his theories, which were complex mathematical equations and scientific calculation that allows one to convert dates and years between the different calendars. , In his Codex Masudicus (1037), Al-Biruni theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia and Europe, or what is today known as the Americas. A short while after al-Bīrūnī found refuge in the Sāmānid capital of Bukhara, a prince of another local dynasty, Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr, was also dethroned and sought help from the Sāmānids to regain his throne. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. Edited with introduction and notes by Ainslee T. Embree, The Norton Library, 1971. | History Today", "The Hindu Calendar as Described in Al-Biruni's Masudic Canon", "KitÄb al-tafhÄ«m li-awÄ'Ä«l á¹£inÄ'at al-tanjÄ«m ÙØªØ§Ø¨ Ø§ÙØªÙÙÙÙ ÙØ£ÙØ§Ø¦Ù ØµÙØ§Ø¹Ø© Ø§ÙØªÙØ¬ÙÙ BÄ«rÅ«nÄ«, Muá¸¥ammad ibn Aá¸¥mad Ø¨ÙØ±ÙÙÙØ Ù ØÙ Ø¯ Ø¨Ù Ø£ØÙ Ø¯", "Monument to Be Inaugurated at the Vienna International Centre, 'Scholars Pavilion' donated to International Organizations in Vienna by Iran", "Permanent mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations office â Vienna", "Negareh: Persian Scholars Pavilion at United Nations Vienna, Austria", http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-4205, "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN ii. Biography Abu Rayhan al-Biruni was born in Khwarazm, a region adjoining the Aral Sea now known as Karakalpakstan.  More recently, Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon, and his data on equinox times and eclipses was used as part of a study of Earth's past rotation. Biruni's writing was very poetic, which may diminish some of the historical value of the work for modern times. In his search for…, …as the scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī or the poet-mathematician Omar Khayyam. Al-Bīrūnī, in full Abū al-Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī, (born Sept. 4, 973 ce, Khwārezm, Khorāsān [now in Uzbekistan]—died c. 1052, Ghazna [now Ghaznī, Afg. But even if the impulses for geometric design were originally created at the highest intellectual level, the designs themselves rapidly became automatic patterns. At Qābūs’s court, al-Bīrūnī met the famous philosopher-scientist Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and exchanged with him a philosophical correspondence that did not lack jealousies and slighting.  Dr. Edward C. Sachau compares it to "a magic island of quiet, impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, and plundered temples. He also travelled to South Asia or Central Asia (modern day Afghanistan) with Mahmud of Ghazni (whose son a…  He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshiped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims (such as the Jabriyya) have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God. He said this in the context of demonstrating his total disgust with flattery, even when it was being directed at him. In 1017 he travelled to the Indian subcontinent and authored a study of Indian culture TÄrÄ«kh al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindu faith practiced in India. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy. Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion. Maḥmūd took Ghazna as his capital in 998 and demanded that both al-Bīrūnī and Avicenna join his court. SAID 1979 (1979): 414-9. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaliba1989 (.  The Iranian Khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum. "Rather, what Al-Biruni seems to be arguing is that there is a common human element in every culture that makes all cultures distant relatives, however foreign they might seem to one another. By his own admission, in a poem preserved in a medieval biographical dictionary, al-Bīrūnī claims that he did not know his own father, much less his family origins.  Al-Biruni was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. al-Biruni In Our Time Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Central Asian polymath al-Biruni and his 11th-century book India, one of the first scholarly works about the country. He carried it out at Nandana in Pind Dadan Khan (present-day Pakistan). The exact length of a cubit is not clear; with an 18 inch cubit his estimate would be 3,600 miles, whereas with a 22 inch cubit his estimate would be 4,200 miles. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Bibliography", "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN iii. Al-Biruni was the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world. His main field of study, however, was astronomy. Geography", "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN vi. Al-Biruni was born near Kath and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after the great scholar. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-ÄthÄr al-bÄqiya and in the QÄnÅ«n as well as elsewhere in the ÄthÄr, in India, and scattered throughout his other works. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist; he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum; he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres; and so on. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing. 60 & 67-69. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation. He studied Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions. Even though al-Bīrūnī was possibly the unwilling guest of a merciless warrior, he still made use of the occasion to pen the acute observations about India that would earn him fame as an ethnographer, anthropologist, and eloquent historian of Indian science. His early patronage by the Khwārezm-Shāhs did not seem to have lasted long, for one of their subordinates rebelled against his master and killed him, thus causing a civil war (c. 996–998) that forced al-Bīrūnī to flee and seek patronage from the more formidable Sāmānid dynasty, which ruled the vast eastern lands of Islam, comprising what is now eastern Iran and much of Afghanistan. His relatively minor works are only minor in size, for they are at least as sophisticated as his major works.  The book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and skilled fashion. Nevertheless, he managed to become the most original polymath the Islamic world had ever known. George Sarton, the founder of the History of Science discipline, defined al-Biruni as “one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times”[1,2]. Some suggest that his reasons for refuting astrology were due to the methods used by astrologers being based on pseudoscience rather than empiricism and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with Sunni Islam.. Answer: Al-Biruni was conscious of the problems involved in understanding strange countries. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. Watt, W. Montgomery, and Said Hakim M. "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« and the study of non-Islamic religions." 5 Feb. 2015. After a period in which al-Bīrūnī undertook extensive travels—or rather escapes from wars, and a constant search for patrons—the entire domain of the Sāmānids fell under the brutal reign of Maḥmūd, son of Sebüktigin. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. Al-Bīrūnī also dedicated his Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliyyah (The Chronology of Ancient Nations) to Qābūs. When the Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid Empire, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the Punjab and parts of northern India. 2001. He also travelled to South Asia or Central Asia (modern day Afghanistan) with Mahmud of Ghazni (whose son a… The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. His Al-Tafhīm li-awāʾil ṣināʿat al-tanjīm (“Elements of Astrology”) is still the most comprehensive treatment of the topic as it was then known. Avicenna managed to escape, but al-Bīrūnī did not, and he worked in Ghazna until the end of his life when he was not accompanying Maḥmūd on his campaigns into northern India. In it he not only defended the role of the mathematical sciences against the attacks of religious scholars who could not understand the utility of the mathematical sciences but also detailed all that one needed to know about determining longitudes and latitudes on land.  He developed experimental methods to determine density, using a particular type of hydrostatic balance. (1910, Vol. Their court at Gorganj (also in Khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists.  Al-Biruni wrote an encyclopedic work on India called Taá¸¥qÄ«q mÄ li-l-Hind min maqÅ«lah maqbÅ«lah fÄ« al-Ê¿aql aw mardhÅ«lah (variously translated as "Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable" or "The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable") in which he explored nearly every aspect of Indian life, including religion, history, geography, geology, science, and mathematics. 60 (60): 9â10. He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur. But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names.  Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. He stated that he was fully objective in his writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should. 2, pp. Little is known of his early life. History and Chronology", "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN vii. He also wrote notable books on chronology and history. The Taḥdid nihāyāt al-amākin li-taṣḥīḥ masāfāt al-masākin (“Determination of the Coordinates of Places for the Correction of Distances Between Cities”) is al-Bīrūnī’s masterpiece in mathematical geography. One such Arab scholar was Abu Rihan or Al-Biruni who hailed from Khwarizm, in modern day Turkmenistan. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus. Their quality was generally high, but a tendency toward facility can be observed in such buildings…, Abū Naṣr’s pupil al-Bīrūnī (973–1048), who produced a vast amount of high-quality work, was one of the masters in applying these theorems to astronomy and to such problems in mathematical geography as the determination of latitudes and longitudes, the distances between cities, and the direction from one city…. Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work.  Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. Encyclopedia of World Biography. S. Pines (September 1964). (973–1052?). He argued for its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, reasoning that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must surely have given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe.  He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. He classified gems by what he considered their primary physical properties, such as specific gravity and hardness, rather than the common practice of the time of classifying them by colour. , Belonging to the Sunni Ash'ari school, al-Biruni nevertheless also associated with Maturidi theologians. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology. The Kitab al-Tafhim is without doubt the most important of the early works of science in Persian and serves as a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography as well as for the knowledge of the Quadrivium whose subjects it covers in a masterly fashion", Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir, "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN â Encyclopaedia Iranica", "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« | Persian scholar and scientist", "Al-Biruni: Father of Comparative Religion", "Ø¨Ù Ù ÙØ§Ø³Ø¨Øª Ø±ÙØ² Ø¨Ø²Ø±Ú¯Ø¯Ø§Ø´Øª Ø§Ø¨ÙØ±ÛØØ§Ù Ø¨ÛØ±ÙÙÛ Ù Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³ ÙÙØ´ÙâØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Ø Ù Ø±Ø§Ø³Ù Û Ø´ÙØ±ÛÙØ± Ù Ø§Ù Ø³Ø§Ù Ø¬Ø§Ø±Û Ø§Ø²Ø³ÙÛ Ø¬Ø§Ù Ø¹Ù ØµÙÙÛ Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù âØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø± Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù Ø¨Ø§ ØØ¶ÙØ± Ù ÙØ§Ù Ø§Øª Ù Ù Ø³Ø¦ÙÙÛÙ ØÙØ²Ù Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³Û Ù ÙÙØ´ÙâØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±ÛØ Ù Ø³Ø¦ÙÙÛÙ Ø³Ø§Ø²Ù Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù Ø¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Û Ú©Ø´ÙØ±Ø Ù¾ÛØ´Ú©Ø³ÙØªØ§Ù Ø§ÛÙ Ø±Ø´ØªÙ Ù Ø§Ø¹Ø¶Ø§Ø¡ Ø¬Ø§Ù Ø¹Ù Ø¨Ø±Ú¯Ø²Ø§Ø± Ú¯Ø±Ø¯ÛØ¯ | Ø³Ø§Ø²Ù Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù Ø¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Û Ú©Ø´ÙØ±", "Al-Biruni and the Political History of India", "So, Who Did Discover America? In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time. [Alberuni's India by Al-Beruni (973-1048) (Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind or simply, Ta'riqh al-hind), early 11th century, translated by Edward C. Sachau. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields he studied. Al-BÄ«r Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography | 2008 | Copyright, "Abu Rayhan al-Biruni." For example, he raised questions about the formation of mountains and explained the existence there of fossils by positing that Earth was once underwater. In his letters to Avicenna, he stated the argument of Aristotle, that there is a change in the creator. ", He further stated that Aristotle, whose arguments Avicenna uses, contradicted himself when he stated that the universe and matter has a start whilst holding on to the idea that matter is pre-eternal.  He also repudiated Avicenna for his views on the eternality of the universe. , Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he seemingly wrote the Kitab al-Tafhim in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages. He was born in Khwarazm, then part of the Samanid Empire (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan). 2004. hwa al biruni abbu re, ncert class 12 indian history part 2 chapter 1 through the eyes of travellers theme 5 topic al biruni and the kitab ul hind from khwarizm to punjab the kitab ul hind, al biruni is the author of the book kitab ul hind most of the works of al biruni are in … Al-Biruni's âChronology of Ancient Nationsâ attempted to accurately establish the length of various historical eras. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions. He accompanied Mahmud in his conquests to South Asia. George Saliba (1980), "Al-Biruni", in Joseph Strayer, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol. Its expressive title, Taḥqīq mā li-l-hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (“Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable”), says it all; it includes all the lore that al-Bīrūnī could gather about India and its science, religion, literature, and customs. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  This contributed to his research of astronomy, since in Islam worship and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be accurately found using astronomical data.. He was however, very critical of the Mu'tazila, particularly criticising al-Jahiz and Zurqan. These are: Al-Biruni arrived in Ghazni as a hostage by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Besides being a challenging mathematical problem, determining the direction of Mecca is a religious requirement for the performance of the ordained five daily prayers in Islam. He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created a makeshift quadrant for that purpose. Ai-Biruni faced some problems in understanding and writing about India. He assumed the superiority of Islam: "We have here given an account of these things in order that the reader may learn by the comparative treatment of the subject how much superior the institutions of Islam are, and how more plainly this contrast brings out all customs and usages, differing from those of Islam, in their essential foulness." Al-Biruni’s academic interests and activities encompassed a wide variety of subjects, ranging from abstract theories of philosophy to the practical sciences of mathematics, geography, geology, physics, astronomy and medicine. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. The lunar crater Al-Biruni and the asteroid 9936 Al-Biruni were named in his honour. He lived in India from AD 1024 to 1030, visited most parts of the country, and wrote about what he saw and felt in 'Taqeeq-e-Hind.' Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science, Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.  He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. On September 4, 973, Muslim scholar Al-Biruni was born. At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes, whom he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents.
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